Tag Archives: bolivia

Training Amazonian communities in fruit tree propagation

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Carlos Magdalena of RBG Kew’s Department of Horticulture demonstrating the propagation of Brazil nut through cuttings

Paradoxically, forest-dependent rural communities in the tropics often have little experience of propagating trees, either from seed or from cuttings and this is the case in the Bolivian Amazon. As part of initiatives to enhance non-timber forest use through agroforestry and fruit tree production we sought the support of the innocent foundation to bring Kew horticulturalist, Carlos Magdalena to the Pando to provide hands-on training to three rural communities. Carlos is well known in Kew’s tropical nurseries as an expert in the propagation of challenging species, he is also a native Spanish-speaker and experienced in training. The aim of our training was to help communities propagate material of species for which they either can’t get enough seed e.g. Sinini (Annona muricata), whose seeds have low fertility such as acerola(Malpighia emarginata) or which take a year or more to germinate, such as the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa).

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A key requirement for cuttings to survive, even in a tropical climate is a polytunnel or sealed chamber to make sure that the leaves lose as little water as possible.

Training covered key aspects of making  cuttings, air-layering and grafting. For example, how to cut the stem to expose the maximum amount of cambium, the tissue from which new roots will grow? What part of a stem is best for preparing a cutting? How many leaves should remain on a cutting? And how to trim them if necessary. It then covered how to look after cuttings once established, including how to make a polytunnel from locally available materials. In total we worked with approximately 60 community members spread over a 300 km stretch of the Pando. At each community the needs and interests were slightly different, as were the facilities available and so we tried to tailor the training accordingly. We found considerable interest and enthusiasm amongst community members, which suggests that the limited capacity for tree propagation is not for lack of interest.

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A member of the Remanzo community preparing cuttings of acerola, a fruit for which there is high demand but which propagates very poorly from seed with germination rates of ca 2%
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Primer poda de un agroforestal basado en Inga para Amazonia

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Comunitarios de Motacus acabando la poda de los árboles de Inga de su parcela. Aunque ha sido listo para la poda desde octubre debido a El Niño y la cosecha de castaña han tenido retrasos

Dos años después de plantar nuestra primera parcela en Motacusal, la comunidad acaba de terminar la primera poda de los árboles. El denso follaje de los árboles de Pacay (Inga) se ha reducido a una capa vegetal y los tallos sacado para servir de leña, dejando aproximadamente 1/3 hectárea de terreno fértil para cultivos anuales como maíz, arroz o frijoles. Es la culminación de más de dos años de trabajo y testimonio del esfuerzo de nuestro equipo de campo, dirigido por Ingeniero Forestal, Rolman Velarde.

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Una vez que se han cortado los tallos, las ramitas y las hojas se dejan por el suelo como abono verde, proporcionando materia orgánica que ayuda la fertlidad del suelo. Image: Rolman Velarde (Herencia)

Dejaremos la hojarasca pudrirse un mes antes de sembrar las primeras cosechas. Gestión de la parcela de Motacusal está siendo supervisado por los niños de la comunidad a través del programa ‘Bosque de los Niños‘ lo que significa que pueden elegir lo que van a sembrar. Esto es importante para la participación de los niños, y también para la comunidad, uniendo nuestras parcelas con su recurso más valioso y llevarlo a buen término es un poderoso símbolo. Los niños han experimentando con diversas semillas para plantar como parte de su currículo productivo y estoy entusiasta de saber lo que han sembrado en siguiente mes. Sin embargo quedan algunos desafíos, por ejemplo el tiempo anómala asociada con El Niño podría dañar las cosechas o al Inga.

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Rolman Velarde explicando a las otras comunidades que participan cómo podar los árboles de Inga para poder cultivar los callejones. Imagen: Victor Soruco, Herencia.

Se utilizó la oportunidad de que sea la primera parcela que se podado para invitar a representantes de las otras comunidades participantes: Palacios, San José, Jerico y Monte Sinaí. Esto nos permitió formarlos en la poda,  también para ellos era una oportunidad para tener una idea de como sus parcelas agroforestales se verá en más o menos un año.

First Inga agroforest plot in Amazon pollarded

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Motacusal community members finishing the pollarding of their plot. Although ready to pollard since October there have been delays due to El Niño and the Brazil Nut harvest

Two years after planting our first plot at Motacusal, the community has just completed the first pollarding. The dense canopy of Inga trees has been reduced to a green mulch and the main stems taken away to be stored for fuel wood leaving about 1/3 ha of fertile ground for growing annual crops such as maize, rice or beans. The pollarding is the culmination of over two years work and testimony to the skills and hard work of our field team, lead by Forest Engineer, Rolman Velarde. We will leave the mulch to rot down a little and in a month the first crops will be sown.

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Once the main stems have been cut, the smaller branches, twigs and leaves are left in the plot as mulch, providing much needed organic matter for the soil. Image: Rolman Velarde (Herencia)

Management of the Motacusal plot is being overseen by the communitie’s children through the ‘Bosque de los Ninos‘ programme which means that they get to choose what will be sown. This is not just important for the engagement of children but also for the community as a whole, linking our demonstration / trial plots with their most valued resource and bringing it to fruition is a powerful symbol. The children have been experimenting with growing various seeds for planting as part of the ‘productive’ part of their school curriculum and I am keen to see what has been planted in a month’s time. There stil remain some challenges though. The anomalous weather associated with El Niño could lead to the crops failing or to the pollarded Inga not recovering as planned.

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Rolman Velarde explaining to the other participating communities how to pollard Inga trees for alley cropping. Image: Victor Soruco, Herencia.

We used the opportunity of this being the first plot to be pollarded to invite representatives from the other particpating communities: Palacios, San José, Jerico and Monte Sinai. This enabled us to train them in pollarding but also for them to get an idea as to what their agroforest plots will look like in a year or so.

Cuando podar los árboles en sistemas agroforestales

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Rolman Velarde, Terry Pennington y Jaime Leon revisando nuestro sitio en Motacusal por octubre 2015. Este sitio ha sido listo para podar desde julio.

Desde julio los árboles de Inga (pacay) en nuestra primera parcela que plantamos al finales de febrero 2014 son bastante grande para podar. Pero no los hemos podado porque las condiciones no son buenos para hacerlo. Como explicó Dr. Terry Pennington, experto sistemas agroforestales con Inga,  no debe podar árboles durante la estación seca y el mejor momento para hacerlo es un par de semanas en la temporada de lluvias. La razón de esto es que cuando se quita todas las hojas y las principales ramas de un árbol, la pérdida por encima del suelo se refleja por debajo del suelo. Es decir que cuando podas un parte de las raíces mueren lo que va disminuir la capacidad del árbol a conseguir agua . Durante la estación seca, hay poca agua en el suelo y si  ha podado el árbol se queda sin bastante raíces para sobrevivir.

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El experto en Inga Terry Pennington revisando la parcela de Motacusal y avisando sobre como y cuando hacer la poda

Por la Amazonia la estación seca  empieza por abril / mayo y termina por octubre / noviembre. Este año ha sido muy seco por el fenómeno de El Niño entonces hemos tenido que adelantar de podar nuestros arboles. Después de podar necesitas dos meses de lluvia. Ya estamos por febrero entonces es possible que no va alcanzar el tiempo para podar antes de la llegada de la estación seca otra vez

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Los arboles de Inga por nuestro sitio de Palacios. Todavía están de  tamaño para podar y el sitio se inunda por febrero

Por una otra parcela, Palacio, también es importante seleccionar un buen tiempo para podar. La razón es que este sitio se inunda por un par de semanas cada febrero. Entonces tenemos que asegurar que los arboles tienen el tiempo para brotar o el menos que se podan arriba del nivel del agua.  Estamos descubriendo que puede se algo complicado ubicar un buen tiempo para podar!

When to pollard Inga agroforest


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Rolman Velarde, Terry Pennington & Jaime Leon inspecting our Motacusal site in October. This site has been ready to pollard since July.

The Inga trees in the first plot that we planted at the end of February 2014 have been big enough to pollard since July. We have not pollarded, however, as the conditions have not been right to do so. As Dr Terry Pennington, Inga agroforest expert explained, you should not pollard trees during the dry season and the best time to do so is a couple of weeks into the wet season. The reason for this is that when you remove all of the leaves and main branches of a tree, the above-ground loss is mirrored below ground. That is the roots die back comensurate with what was lost above. During the dry season there is little water in the soil and the tree needs all its roots to obtain the moisture it needs. Therefore if you have pruned during the dry season, the tree is left without enough roots to survive.

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Inga and Inga-agroforest expert Terry Pennington inspecting the Motacusal site and providing advice on the best time to pollard

In the case of the Bolivian Amazon, the dry season normally runs from April/May to October/November. This year has been particularly hot and dry, possible a consequence of the El Niño phenomenon, and so pollarding our plot would likely kill all of the trees. We will therefore wait until the middle of November when the rains should have started before pollarding.

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The Inga trees at our seasonally flooded Palacio site are not yet big enough to pollard and when they are finding an appropriate time to pollard will be complicated

At another of our sites, Palacio, the timing of pollarding is also important. The reason for this is that it is a site which floods for a couple of weeks each February. We therefore have to be careful that we leave enough time between pollarding and the floods. Or at least make sure that we pollard high enough so that the new shoots emerge above the floodwaters. So here again the timing of pollarding and the associated planting of crops needs careful thought!

Trabajando con la fundación innocent para apoyar a viviendas y nutrición

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Niños de la comunidad de San José a unos reuniones comunitarias celebradas en el bosque

Como parte de nuestros esfuerzos para fortalecer el impacto de nuestro proyecto Futuros Forest hemos sido muy afortunados de asociarnos con la Fundación innocent para expandir nuestro componente agroforestal con una mejor incorporación de árboles frutales. Fondos de la Fundación innocent nos están permitiendo incorporar tres comunidades adicionales, construir viveros de árboles frutales y desarrollar la capacidad dentro de cada comunidad para germinar, crecer y gestionarlos. Como es el caso de las otras acciones de nuestro proyecto comenzamos conversaciones con cada comunidad, atravez del ONG Herencia, sobre cómo esta adición podría encajar en sus planes de desarrollo. También tienen que pensar en qué tipo de frutales quieren producir: la cantidad para consumo personal y para vender. Si sienten que encaje dentro de sus objetivos luego de pasar a la fase más sencillo de construir los viveros y la obtención de semilla.

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Rolman Velarde del ONG Herencia en la parte de la parcela agroforestal Motacusal destinado a árboles frutales

Continue reading Trabajando con la fundación innocent para apoyar a viviendas y nutrición

Community development plans to support agroforest fruit orchards

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Members of the Monte Sinai community producing a visual map of their community and its resources. Image: Rolman Velarde

We  believe that the introduction of new approaches to land use needs to be done as part of a broader and integrated plan for a community. It would make little sense for a community to plant an agroforest plot unless they had considered the costs and long-term benefits of doing so. The reason for this is that at several stages in the process there will be challenges and decisions to be taken that will need require the community to remain motivated and able to evaluate the pros and cons of persisting with the system or abandoning it. Given the general lack of success of previous agroforest initiatives elsewhere we feel that this will be the key to our success. As part of our efforts to strengthen the impact of our Forest Futures project and with the support of the innocent Foundation, our main partners  Herencia,  have been working with three Amazonian communities: Remanzo, Jerico, Monte Sinai,  to develop medium to long-term management plans into which agroforest for fruit and annual crops will be integrated.

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Group discussions of the communities needs and priorities follow an evaluation of their resources and entitlements from the Bolivian state. Image: Rolman Velarde

Continue reading Community development plans to support agroforest fruit orchards

Working with innocent to support livelihoods & nutrition

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Children from the San Jose community at a community meetings held in the forest

As part of our efforts to strengthen the impact of our Forest Futures project we have been very lucky to partner with the innocent Foundation to expand our agroforest component and better incorporate fruit trees into them. Funds from the innocent Foundation are enabling us to incorporate three additional communities, build fruit tree nurseries and develop the capacity within each community to germinate, grow and manage them. As is the case for our other Forest Futures actions we start by discussions with each community about how this addition to their community could fit into their development plans. They also need to think about what kind of fruit they want to grow: how much for personal consumption and how much to sell. If they feel that it fits within their long-term goals then we move on to the more straightforward phase of building the nurseries and obtaining seed.

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Rolman Velarde of Herencia in the part of the Motacusal agroforest plot destined for our first fruit-tree seedlings

Continue reading Working with innocent to support livelihoods & nutrition

UK Ambassador visits and we present our project to the Governor of the Pando

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HM Ambassador to Bolivia, Ross Denny talking with the leader of the San Jose community on a visit to one of our agroforest plots in Bolivia. Click on link to see clip of children being filmed for BoliviaTV. Image Alejandro Araujo.

As well as working directly with rural communities through our collaboration with the Bolivian NGO Herencia, the strategy for our project is to influence regional decision-makers. We were very lucky therefore to be able to host a visit by our Ambassador, Ross Denny and for him to use the opportunity to formally introduce our project to the Governor of the Pando, Lúis Adolfo Flores Roberts. Ross Denny visited our agroforest demonstration plot, tree diversity inventory plot and the children’s Bosque de los Niños forest reserve being developed in collaboration with Herencia. Ross’s visit attracted a lot of interest from the local media which we were able to benefit from through several television interviews with Ross himself, forest engineer Rolma Velarde and I, to be broadcast nationally soon. Continue reading UK Ambassador visits and we present our project to the Governor of the Pando

Inga establishment on heavily compacted degraded soils

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Seedling growing on a site where topsoil was removed with a bulldozer. Obvious signs of stress are the yellow hue to the leaves and the brown fungal infection.  Click to see a clip with further explanation.

In addition to restoring soil fertility to abandoned slash-and-burn sites we are also working to use Inga to rehabilitate degraded pasture and severely degraded soils. Soils that have been heavily compacted by cattle over several years or by heavy machinery. Rehabilitating such sites, especially in the case of cattle pasture could have a significant impact in the region because adding value to such marginal land could help reduce the pressure on natural forest. With this aim we planted two such sites in March 2014. Revisiting the sites in July has shown mixed results with some of the seedlings doing very well (see image below) whilst others are clearly suffering (see image above). In comparison with slash-and-burn sites where we have lost very few seedlings, and most of those to overzealous weeding, Continue reading Inga establishment on heavily compacted degraded soils