Tag Archives: innocent foundation

Training Amazonian communities in fruit tree propagation

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Carlos Magdalena of RBG Kew’s Department of Horticulture demonstrating the propagation of Brazil nut through cuttings

Paradoxically, forest-dependent rural communities in the tropics often have little experience of propagating trees, either from seed or from cuttings and this is the case in the Bolivian Amazon. As part of initiatives to enhance non-timber forest use through agroforestry and fruit tree production we sought the support of the innocent foundation to bring Kew horticulturalist, Carlos Magdalena to the Pando to provide hands-on training to three rural communities. Carlos is well known in Kew’s tropical nurseries as an expert in the propagation of challenging species, he is also a native Spanish-speaker and experienced in training. The aim of our training was to help communities propagate material of species for which they either can’t get enough seed e.g. Sinini (Annona muricata), whose seeds have low fertility such as acerola(Malpighia emarginata) or which take a year or more to germinate, such as the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa).

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A key requirement for cuttings to survive, even in a tropical climate is a polytunnel or sealed chamber to make sure that the leaves lose as little water as possible.

Training covered key aspects of making  cuttings, air-layering and grafting. For example, how to cut the stem to expose the maximum amount of cambium, the tissue from which new roots will grow? What part of a stem is best for preparing a cutting? How many leaves should remain on a cutting? And how to trim them if necessary. It then covered how to look after cuttings once established, including how to make a polytunnel from locally available materials. In total we worked with approximately 60 community members spread over a 300 km stretch of the Pando. At each community the needs and interests were slightly different, as were the facilities available and so we tried to tailor the training accordingly. We found considerable interest and enthusiasm amongst community members, which suggests that the limited capacity for tree propagation is not for lack of interest.

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A member of the Remanzo community preparing cuttings of acerola, a fruit for which there is high demand but which propagates very poorly from seed with germination rates of ca 2%
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Trabajando con la fundación innocent para apoyar a viviendas y nutrición

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Niños de la comunidad de San José a unos reuniones comunitarias celebradas en el bosque

Como parte de nuestros esfuerzos para fortalecer el impacto de nuestro proyecto Futuros Forest hemos sido muy afortunados de asociarnos con la Fundación innocent para expandir nuestro componente agroforestal con una mejor incorporación de árboles frutales. Fondos de la Fundación innocent nos están permitiendo incorporar tres comunidades adicionales, construir viveros de árboles frutales y desarrollar la capacidad dentro de cada comunidad para germinar, crecer y gestionarlos. Como es el caso de las otras acciones de nuestro proyecto comenzamos conversaciones con cada comunidad, atravez del ONG Herencia, sobre cómo esta adición podría encajar en sus planes de desarrollo. También tienen que pensar en qué tipo de frutales quieren producir: la cantidad para consumo personal y para vender. Si sienten que encaje dentro de sus objetivos luego de pasar a la fase más sencillo de construir los viveros y la obtención de semilla.

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Rolman Velarde del ONG Herencia en la parte de la parcela agroforestal Motacusal destinado a árboles frutales

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Community development plans to support agroforest fruit orchards

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Members of the Monte Sinai community producing a visual map of their community and its resources. Image: Rolman Velarde

We  believe that the introduction of new approaches to land use needs to be done as part of a broader and integrated plan for a community. It would make little sense for a community to plant an agroforest plot unless they had considered the costs and long-term benefits of doing so. The reason for this is that at several stages in the process there will be challenges and decisions to be taken that will need require the community to remain motivated and able to evaluate the pros and cons of persisting with the system or abandoning it. Given the general lack of success of previous agroforest initiatives elsewhere we feel that this will be the key to our success. As part of our efforts to strengthen the impact of our Forest Futures project and with the support of the innocent Foundation, our main partners  Herencia,  have been working with three Amazonian communities: Remanzo, Jerico, Monte Sinai,  to develop medium to long-term management plans into which agroforest for fruit and annual crops will be integrated.

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Group discussions of the communities needs and priorities follow an evaluation of their resources and entitlements from the Bolivian state. Image: Rolman Velarde

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Working with innocent to support livelihoods & nutrition

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Children from the San Jose community at a community meetings held in the forest

As part of our efforts to strengthen the impact of our Forest Futures project we have been very lucky to partner with the innocent Foundation to expand our agroforest component and better incorporate fruit trees into them. Funds from the innocent Foundation are enabling us to incorporate three additional communities, build fruit tree nurseries and develop the capacity within each community to germinate, grow and manage them. As is the case for our other Forest Futures actions we start by discussions with each community about how this addition to their community could fit into their development plans. They also need to think about what kind of fruit they want to grow: how much for personal consumption and how much to sell. If they feel that it fits within their long-term goals then we move on to the more straightforward phase of building the nurseries and obtaining seed.

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Rolman Velarde of Herencia in the part of the Motacusal agroforest plot destined for our first fruit-tree seedlings

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Selección de posibles frutales para cultivar en parcelas agroforestal

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Uno de varios especies de Garcinia, posiblemente macrophylla conocido como Achachairú, aquí en venta en el mercado de Cobija

Ahora que las primeras de nuestras parcelas agroforestales están listos para apoyar la producción de frutales tenemos que ayudar a nuestros comunidades socios a seleccionar las especies / variedades a cultivar. Este es un negocio complicado, ya que tendrá que equilibrar a corto plazo frente a los beneficios a largo plazo con la toma de riesgos con la actualidad de alto valor y cultivos de moda que podría no conservar su demanda o precio en el futuro. Además hemos tenido la suerte de conseguir el apoyo de la fundación innocent para ayudar a nuestras comunidades con la producción de plántulas a través de la construcción de viveros robustos y la oferta de formación experto de Kew y horticultores locales.

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Cedrillo o Spondias mombin, una fruta muy popular en toda América Latina, pero tal-vez  con limitado potencial como cultivo comercial

Nuestra estrategia es hablar con expertos locales, consumidores potenciales y buscar en los mercados locales para identificar a una lista de una docena o más especies potenciales. A continuación vamos a preparar una lista de las ventajas y los riesgos asociados a cada especie, localizar las fuentes de semilla y comenzar a crecer un par de cientos de plántines de cada uno. Una vez que tenemos un “stock” de trabajo de plántines, luego presentaremos cada especie a las comunidades en una reunión comunitaria. Esto nos permitirá ayudar a decidir qué especies les gustaría cultivar en función de sus necesidades y deseos.

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Variedades silvestres de cacao (Theobroma cacao) como éste con provinencia del río Tauhumanu podrían tener potencial si el comercio de Cacao silvestre cosechada aumenta

Siguiente es un listado preliminar de especies debajo consideración:

Scientific name Local name
Malpighia punicifolia Acerola
Annona muricata Sinini
Garcinia macrophylla Achachairu
Theobroma cacao Cacao
Theobroma cacao Cacao silvestre
Eugenia stipitata Arazaboy
Euterpe oleracea Acai
Myrciaria dubia Camu camu
Spondias mombin Cedrillo
Anacardium occidentale Caju
Spondias tuberosa? Cacharana
Paullinia cupana? Guarana
Rollinea mucosa Biriba
Pouteria macrophylla Lucuma
Pouteria lucuma Lúcuma
Theobroma grandiflorum Cupuacu

Selecting potential fruit trees to grow in agroforest

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One of several Garcinia sp, possibly macrophylla known as Achachairu for sale in Cobija market

Now that the first of our agroforest plots are ready to support food and fruit production we need to start helping our community partners select what species / varieties to grow. This is a tricky business as they will need to balance short-term vs long-term benefits with taking risks with currently high value and fashionable crops which might not retain their demand or price in the future. In addition we have been very fortunate to get support from the innocent foundation to help our communities with the production of seedlings through the construction of robust nurseries and the provision of expert training from Kew and local horticulturalists.

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Cedrillo or Spondias mombin, a very popular fruit throughout Latin America but with limited potential as a cash crop

Our strategy is to speak to local experts, potential consumers and look in local markets to identify a long list of a dozen or more species. Next we will prepare a list of the advantages and risks associated with each species, locate sources of seed and start growing a couple of hundred seedlings of each. Once we have a working ‘stock’ of seedlings we will then present each species to the communities at a community meeting. This will enable us to help them decide which species they would like to cultivate based on their needs and desires.

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Wild varieties of Cacao (Theobroma cacao) such as this one from the Tauhumanu River could have potential as trade in wild harvested Cacao increases

Below is the list of species currently under consideration

Scientific name Local name
Malpighia punicifolia Acerola
Annona muricata Sinini
Garcinia macrophylla Achachairu
Theobroma cacao Cacao
Theobroma cacao Cacao silvestre
Eugenia stipitata Arazaboy
Euterpe oleracea Acai
Myrciaria dubia Camu camu
Spondias mombin Cedrillo
Anacardium occidentale Caju
Spondias tuberosa? Cacharana
Paullinia cupana? Guarana
Rollinea mucosa Biriba
Pouteria macrophylla Lucuma
Pouteria lucuma Lúcuma
Theobroma grandiflorum Cupuacu