The synthesis introduces two concepts that were new to me: the first was the notion of the Amazon as a ‘Green Ocean’, the second that the Amazon functions as a biotic pump pushing ca 20 million tonnes of water into the atmosphere every day and in doing so drawing water vapour in from the Atlantic Ocean. The first idea of the Amazon as a Green Ocean is an important one as it gives a scale to the impact the Amazon has on the global climate, equivalent to one of the World’s Oceans. Conversely it also suggests the enormity of what we are doing to an ecosystem that is probably critical for our welfare. The second concept, not proven but for which there is mounting evidence, presents the Amazon as a vast community of ca 385 billion trees mutually interdependent with trillions of micro-organisms, insects and vertebrates functioning in concert as a water pump, extracting water from the ground, catalyzing its conversion to rain in the lower atmosphere and in doing so drawing water vapour in from the Atlantic Ocean and sending moisture to the grain belt of South America creating one of the most productive agricultural landscapes in the World.
The main points of Antonio’s report are that 1) the Amazon generates a climate that supports agriculture to its south, 2) deforestation will result in a climate that does no longer supports agriculture in southern South America, 3) that the nature of the Amazon’s impact on climate means that there is a point of no-return with respect to deforestation which once passed will lead irreversibly to desertification for much of southern South America, 4) that deforestation in the Amazon is already having an impact on the regions climate and that this could accelerate the impact of climate change on the Amazon, and lastly 5) it is not too late to reverse these impacts and that muscular actions to outlaw forest fires and deforestation coupled with a popularization of the scientific research on the Amazon cold avert the destruction of the Green Ocean. I can not recommend reading the report enough, it is engagingly and precisely written and will make you amazed at the impact forest have on our World.
We have been working with the Pimpollo community for just over a year. It has been a real challenge for us, as well as for them. The community is formed of a group of ca 25 families settled in the Amazon for less than two years and from three different parts of the Bolivian Andes. Life is very difficult for these communities. For a start they do not know each other very well and yet will depend on each other for their survival. This creates a number of tensions and in the last year of contact with Pimpollo we have seen an almost complete change in family composition with only three of the original families remaining. Secondly, Pimpollo is located over a 100 km, on dirt-track, from the nearest town, the last 30 km or so of which is semi-passable during the wet season. This makes access to medical care, schooling and security intermittent at best, especially considering that there is no phone coverage and all communication occurs through VHF radio. Thirdly, they are very poor and farming some of the World’s poorest soils. Having recently come from the relatively fertile Andes, this poses real challenges. It also makes it much harder for us to maintain contact.
Our plot at Palacios is located in seasonally flooded forest on the banks of the Tahumanu river. This meant that we had to plant our seedlings after the flood had receded as they would probably not have survived if completely immersed. The up-side of flooding though is that the soils are rich and the seedlings, although planted late, have grown well. When the next floods occur in February they will be tall enough not to be completely submersed and so should survive. It might seem strange that a slash-and-burn site on such rich alluvial soils should be abandoned and this was something I was keen to find out from the community. They explained that after a year or more weeds invade the site very aggressively and are very difficult to remove. We are hoping that Inga‘s rapid growth, spreading crown and large leaves should act as an effective weed-suppressant. It may be that weed control could be one of the main uses of Inga in the Amazon.
The trees at Palacios have grown well, on average over 11 cm per month. Currently they range from 1.0-1.5 m in height at six months since planting. With the most intense rains to come they should increase this rate significantly over the next few months. They still need weeding, probably until after the next floods,. The community seem pleased with progress too and are planning another plot for after the next floods.
Although the seedlings we planted at our San José site are growing poorly and about 1/4 of them have not survived, this is a strategically important site for us. This is because it represents a worst-case scenario in terms of land-use: top-soil removal combined with heavy compaction by a bulldozer. Compaction causes severe and long-lasting damage to soils that can take decades to recover from. The community of San José, by electing to establish an agroforest plot on this site, have given us an opportunity to gauge growth and mortality rates Inga edulis on such areas and so evaluate their potential with respect to restoring them to productivity.
We established our first Inga agroforest plot on an abandoned slash-and-burn site in a community called Motacusal just over nine months ago. Since then the seedlings have grown into small trees, most of which are over 2m high. In another six months their crowns will be touching and they will have captured the site, that is to say, they will prevent any other plants from growing. This will enable the local farmers to plant what they want when they want and not have to worry about weeds. They will of course need to pollard the trees before they do so.
One of the most effective ways to conserve natural forest is to maximize the income local communities get from it in a sustainable manner. Even if they are not the official owners of the land they will likely resist any deforestation if it impacts on their income. The forests of the Pando are fortunate in having two important non-timber forest products: brazil nuts and wild rubber. Both of which have wrought the history of this part of the Amazon. In recent years, with the drop in the price of wild rubber associated with the rise of plantation rubber in Asia, there has been a decline in the tapping of wild rubber. If done correctly the tapping of wild rubber does little lasting damage to the trees and produces a high quality rubber that is currently sold for 14 BOB a kilo, about £1.40 / $2 / €1.60. If that price could be increased then rural communities would be much keener to tap the wild rubber trees in their forests. By how much could be the focus of a fascinating research project.
Whilst in Cobija we were invited to participate in a mass planting of native tree seedlings around the town as part of an initiative organised by students from the University of the Pando. The students had decided to plant about 5,000 seedlings around Cobija with help from Bolivia’s Ministry of the Environment & Water and the support of the Ministry of Education. This particular site was a large unofficial rubbish dump next to their campus. Fortunately it had been cleared of rubbish prior to planting.
What was exciting for us was not just the fact that this initiative had been initiated and organized by the students but the fact that all but one of the species planted were native. Something that most municipal planting in the UK fails to do. It shows that the students way ahead of most local authorities in London!
Amelia Baracat and myself have just arrived in Cobija, capital of the Pando to help plan and manage our Darwin Initiative ‘Forest Futures’ project. We need to go through budgets, recent developments and some of the challenges that need overcoming. We are also very excited to start our fruit tree nursery project funded by the innocent Foundation. Since I was last here in July we have begun to get significant interest from national authorities interested in sustainable development and forestry. At the end of November Rolman Velarde showed our San José agroforest plots to Engineer Raul Aguirre Vásquez of the Dirección de Gestión de Desarollo Forestal (Department for the Management of Forest Development) of the (Ministry of the Environment and Water). Earlier in September we also had a visit from Moory Romero of the Autoridad Plurinacional de la Madre de Tierra, the Government Department responsible for the application of Bolivia’s innovative ‘Mother Earth’ legislation.
As well as promoting sustainable alternatives to slash-and-burn our Darwin Initiative Forest Futures project also seeks to raise awareness of the value of natural forest and alternatives to its unsustainable use. With this aim Juan Fernando Reyes and Rolman Velarde from Herencia ran a two-part course for 60 students and lecturers from the Environmental Engineering programme of the Amazonian University of the Pando (UAP). The first part of the course took place at UAP and provided an overview of the ecosystem services that the Amazon provides to the Pando but also at a regional and global level.
The second part of the course took part at one of our partner communities, Palacio. This consisted of demonstrating sustainable agricultural practices: aquaculture and the restoration of soils to productivity using Inga agroforestry. The students were also able to visit our monitoring plot where together with partners from the Museo Noel Kempf we are evaluating the biodiversity and carbon sequestration of the Pando’s forests.
We have established Inga agroforest plots on abandoned slash-and-burn sites, degraded pasture and land used for road grading where the topsoil is removed with a bulldozer. After six months seedlings have established on all of these sites but with slower growth and some mortality on the bull-dozed and pasture sites. We planted out our plot at Motacusal, an abandoned slash-and-burn site at the end of February and since then the seedlings here have done very well, most over 1.5 m in height. At this site we have 1,200 plants growing and they may well ‘capture’ the site a year after planting in six months time. By capture we mean that they dominate the weeds and other competing vegetation and control the site. Now that the dry season has ended and the seedlings have become saplings we are well on the way to delivering our first agroforest.